A valve is a critical part of a vehicle’s combustion engine which controls the flow of exhaust gasses and fuel in an engine cylinder. Engine valves are critical for determining the performance of a vehicle’s engine as it controls the flow of exhaust gasses and fuel in and out of the cylinder. Proper timing of an engine valve is responsible for the vehicle’s proper air and fuel mixture ratio. This helps the engine to attain proper mileage and reduce emission. Various new materials are used and being tested to achieve better overall performance of vehicles. There are chiefly two types of engine valves, intake valve and exhaust valve. Inlet valve allows fuel to enter the cylinder at the time of combustion and the outlet valve allows the exhaust gasses to escape the combustion chamber after combustion. Proper timing of the opening and closing of the valves with synchronization is crucial for overall performance of the vehicle. Improper synchronization can lead to engine malfunction or improper mileage and excess emission of harmful gasses. Valves are usually guided by the camshaft of the engine, which is connected with the crankshaft that drives the pistons.
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Power generated from the engine can be increased by changing the valve stroke and phasing the camshafts. Some of the major technologies of variable valve timing are Vanos, Timing Variator, VVti and VTEC among others. On account of rising concerns about vehicle fuel efficiency and government pollution norms, manufacturers are implementing various variable timing systems to improve vehicle fuel efficiency and reduce carbon emission footprints.There are various variable valve timing techniques such as cam phasing, cam changing, and continuous & discrete valve train technology. Cam phasing technology works by varying the timing of the valve by varying the angle position of the camshaft. For example, at high rotations per minute, the camshaft on the inlet side rotates in advance by 30 degree angle, to enable prior intake. The movement that is to be made by the camshaft is controlled by the vehicle’s electronic control unit according to necessity, and is triggered by hydraulic valve gears. The cam changing technology makes necessary changes in the cam timing at different stages of engine speed such as medium speed, low speed, and high speed. Different camshafts have different shapes which enables different lift and timing. One set of camshafts operates during normal speed, such as, below 4,500 rotations per minute; another surrogates at higher engine speed. Combining cam-phasing VVT and cam-changing VVT may gratify the requirement of both flexibility throughout the whole engine speed range and top-end engine power, thus making it inevitably more complex.
The major drivers influencing the automotive engine valve market is the need to reduce the impact of vehicular carbon emission footprint and improved fuel efficiency. Moreover, engine downsizing adopted by major manufacturers have also led to huge investment in research and development of various new techniques of variable valve timing to increase the overall performance of the engine.
The automotive engine valve market can be segmented into two broad categories – by fuel type and by technology. By fuel type the market has been further divided into gasoline and diesel engine. By technology the market has been divided into spring return valves, tappet valves, desmodromic valves, and Quattrovalvole valves. Additionally the global market has been further divided into five regions; they are North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Latin America
Asia Pacific region held the leading share of the automotive engine valves market followed by North America and Europe. The Asia Pacific region is expected to grow at the highest rate. This growth of the market in Asia Pacific can be credited to increased production of diesel vehicles along with increasing demand for fuel-efficient vehicles and stringent emission norms which has empowered top variable valve timing systems manufacturers to invest heavily in this technology.
The major players in this industry are Robert Bosch GmbH (Germany), Continental AG (Germany), Denso Corporation (Japan), BorgWarner Inc. (U.S.), and Schaeffler AG (Germany) among others.
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