Written testimony of DHS Secretary Jeh Johnson for a House Committee on Homeland Security hearing titled “Worldwide Threats to the Homeland: ISIS and the New Wave of Terror”

Release Date: 
July 14, 2016

311 Cannon House Office Building

Chairman McCaul, Representative Thompson, and members of the Committee, thank you for holding this annual threats hearing with me, the FBI Director and the Director of NCTC. I believe this annual opportunity for Congress to hear from us, concerning threats to the homeland is important. I welcome the opportunity to be here again.

Counterterrorism

San Bernardino and Orlando are terrible reminders of the new threats we face to the homeland.

We have moved from a world of terrorist-directed attacks, to a world that also includes the threat of terrorist-inspired attacks – attacks by those who live among us in the homeland and self-radicalize, inspired by terrorist propaganda on the internet. By their nature, terrorist-inspired attacks are often difficult to detect by our intelligence and law enforcement communities, could occur with little or no notice, and in general, make for a more complex homeland security challenge.

This threat environment has required a whole new type of response.

As directed by President Obama, our government, along with our coalition partners, continues to take the fight militarily to terrorist organizations overseas. ISIL is the terrorist organization most prominent on the world stage. Since September 2014, air strikes and special operations have in fact led to the death of a number of ISIL’s leaders and those focused on plotting external attacks in the West. At the same time, ISIL has lost about 47% of the populated areas it once controlled in Iraq, and thousands of square miles of territory it once controlled in Syria. But as ISIL loses territory, it has increased its plotting on targets outside of Iraq and Syria, and continues to encourage attacks in the United States.

On the law enforcement side, the FBI continues to, in my judgment, do an excellent job of detecting, investigating, preventing, and prosecuting terrorist plots here in the homeland.

Following the attacks in Ottawa, Canada in 2014, and in reaction to terrorist groups’ public calls for attacks on government installations in the western world, I directed the Federal Protective Service to enhance its presence and security at various U.S. government buildings around the country.

The Department of Homeland Security has intensified our work with state and local law enforcement, and strengthened our information sharing efforts. Almost every day, we share intelligence and information with Joint Terrorism Task Forces, fusion centers, local police chiefs and sheriffs. And we are now able to instantly cross-reference suspects against law enforcement and counterterrorism databases and share information—often in almost real-time—with our domestic as well as international partners. We are also enhancing information sharing with organizations that represent businesses, college and professional sports, community and faith-based organizations, and critical infrastructure.

And, since 2013 we’ve spearheaded something called the “DHS Data Framework” initiative. We are improving our ability to use DHS information for our homeland security purposes, and to strengthen our ability to compare DHS data with other travel, immigration, and other information at the unclassified and classified level. We are doing this consistent with laws and policies that protect privacy and civil liberties.

We also provide grant assistance to state and local governments around the country, for things such as active shooter training exercises, overtime for police officers and firefighters, salaries for emergency managers, emergency vehicles, and communications and surveillance equipment. We helped to fund an active shooter training exercise that took place in the New York City subways last November, a series of these exercises earlier this year in Miami and Louisville, and just last month at Fenway Park in Boston. In February, and last month, we announced another two rounds of awards for FY 2016 that will fund similar activities over the next three years.

We are enhancing measures to detect and prevent travel to this country by foreign terrorist fighters.

We are strengthening the security of our Visa Waiver Program, which permits travelers from 38 different countries to come to the U.S. for a limited time period without a visa. In 2014, we began to collect more personal information in the Electronic System for Travel Authorization, or “ESTA” system, that travelers from Visa Waiver countries are required to use. ESTA information is screened against the same counterterrorism and law enforcement databases that travelers with traditional visas are screened, and must be approved prior to an individual boarding a plane to the United States. As a result of these enhancements, over 3,000 additional travelers were denied travel here through this program in FY 2015. In August 2015, we introduced further security enhancements to the Visa Waiver Program.

Through the passage in December of the Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 2015, Congress has codified into law several of these security enhancements, and placed new restrictions on eligibility for travel to the U.S. without a visa. We began to enforce these restrictions on January 21, 2016. Waivers from these restrictions will only be granted on a case-by-case basis, when it is in the law enforcement or national security interests of the United States to do so. Those denied entry under the Visa Waiver Program as a result of the new law may still apply for a visa to travel to the U.S. In February, under the authority given me by the new law, I also added three countries – Libya, Yemen and Somalia – to a list that prohibits anyone who has visited these nations in the past five years from traveling to the U.S. without a visa. In April, DHS began enforcing the mandatory use of high security electronic passports for all Visa Waiver Program travelers. In both February and June, CBP enhanced the ESTA application with additional questions.

We are expanding the Department’s use of social media for various purposes. Today social media is used for over 30 different operational and investigative purposes within DHS. Beginning in 2014 we launched four pilot programs that involved consulting the social media of applicants for certain immigration benefits. USCIS now also reviews the social media of Syrian refugee applicants referred for enhanced vetting, and is extending this review to additional categories of refugee applicants. Based upon the recommendation of a Social Media Task Force within DHS, I have determined, consistent with relevant privacy and other laws, that we must expand the use of social media even further.

CBP is deploying personnel at various airports abroad, to pre-clear air travelers before they get on flights to the United States. At present, we have this pre-clearance capability at 15 airports overseas. And, last year, through pre-clearance, we denied boarding to over 10,700 travelers (or 29 per day) before they even got to the United States. As I said here last year, we want to build more of these. In May 2015, I announced 10 additional airports in nine countries that we’ve prioritized for preclearance. In May, CBP announced an “open season,” running through August 1, for foreign airports to express interest in participating in the next round of preclearance expansion. I urge Congress to pass legislation enabling preclearance operations in Canada, by providing legal clarity to CBP officials who are responsible for the day-to-day operation of preclearance facilities there.

For years Congress and others have urged us to develop a system for biometric exit – that is, to take the fingerprints or other biometric data of those who leave the country. CBP has begun testing technologies that can be deployed for this nationwide. With the passage of the FY 2016 Omnibus Appropriations Act, Congress authorized up to $1 billion in fee increases over a period of ten years to help pay for the implementation of biometric exit. In April, the Department delivered its Comprehensive Biometric Entry/Exit Plan to Congress, which details CBP’s plan for expanding implementation of a biometric entry/exit system using that funding. I have directed that CBP redouble its efforts to achieve a biometric entry/exit system, and to begin implementing biometric exit, starting at the highest volume airports, in 2018.

Last January I announced the schedule for the final two phases of implementation of the REAL ID Act, which go into effect in January 2018 and then October 2020. At present, 24 states are compliant with the law, 28 have extensions, and 4 states or territories are out of compliance without an extension. Now that the final timetable for implementation of the law is in place, we urge all states, for the good of their residents, to start issuing REAL ID- compliant drivers’ licenses as soon as possible.

In the current threat environment, there is a role for the public too. “If You See Something, Say Something”™ must be more than a slogan. We continue to stress this. DHS has now established partnerships with the NFL, Major League Baseball and NASCAR, to raise public awareness at sporting events. An informed and vigilant public contributes to national security.

In December we reformed “NTAS,” the National Terrorism Advisory System. In 2011, we replaced the color-coded alerts with NTAS. But, the problem with NTAS was we never used it, it consisted of just two types of Alerts: “Elevated” and “Imminent,” and depended on the presence of a known specific and credible threat. This does not work in the current environment, which includes the threat of homegrown, self-radicalized, terrorist-inspired attacks. So, in December we added a new form of advisory – the NTAS “Bulletin” – to augment the existing Alerts, and issued the first Bulletin providing the public with information on the current threat environment and how they can help. The December Bulletin expired last month, and we issued a new and updated Bulletin on June 15.

Given the nature of the evolving terrorist threat, building bridges to diverse communities is also a homeland security imperative. Well informed families and communities are the best defense against terrorist ideologies. Al Qaeda and ISIL are targeting Muslim communities in this country. We must respond. In my view, building bridges to our communities is as important as any of our other homeland security missions.

In 2015 we took these efforts to new levels. We created the DHS Office for Community Partnerships (OCP), which is now the central hub for the Department’s efforts to counter violent extremism in this country, and the lead for a new interagency Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Task Force that includes DHS, the Department of Justice (DOJ), the FBI, the National Counter Terrorism Center (NCTC) and other agencies. We are focused on partnering with and empowering communities by providing them a wide range of resources to use in preventing violent extremist recruitment and radicalization. Specifically, we are providing access to federal grant opportunities for state and local leaders, and partnering with the private sector to find innovative, community-based approaches.

Ensuring that the Nation’s CVE efforts are sufficiently resourced has been an integral part of our overall efforts. Last week, on July 6, I announced the CVE Grant Program, with $10 million in available funds provided by Congress in the 2016 Omnibus Appropriations Act. The CVE Grant Program will be administered jointly by OCP and FEMA. This is the first time federal funding at this level will be provided, on a competitive basis, specifically to support local CVE efforts. The funding will be competitively awarded to state, tribal, and local governments, nonprofit organizations, and institutions of higher education to support new and existing community-based efforts to counter violent extremist recruitment and radicalization to violence.

Finally, given the nature of the current threat from homegrown violent extremists, homeland security must include sensible gun control laws. We cannot have the former without the latter. Consistent with the Second Amendment, and the right of responsible gun owners to possess firearms, we must make it harder for a terrorist to acquire a gun in this country. The events of San Bernardino and Orlando make this painfully clear.

Aviation Security

As we have seen from recent attacks in Egypt, Somalia, Brussels, and Istanbul, the threat to aviation is real. We are taking aggressive steps to improve aviation and airport security. In the face of increased travel volume, we will not compromise aviation security to reduce wait times at Transportation Security Administration (TSA) screening points. With the support of Congress we are surging resources and adding personnel to address the increased volume of travelers.

Since 2014 we have enhanced security at overseas last-point-of-departure airports, and a number of foreign governments have replicated those enhancements. Security at these last-point-of-departure airports remains a point of focus in light of recent attacks, including those in Brussels and Istanbul.

As you know, in May of last year a classified DHS Inspector General’s test of certain TSA screening at eight airports, reflecting a dismal fail rate, was leaked to the press. I directed a 10-point plan to fix the problems identified by the IG. Under the new leadership of Admiral Pete Neffenger over the last year, TSA has aggressively implemented this plan. This has included retraining the entire Transportation Security Officers (TSO) workforce, increased use of random explosive trace detectors, testing and re-evaluating the screening equipment that was the subject of the IG’s test, a rewrite of the standard operating procedures manual, increased manual screening, and less randomized inclusion in Pre-Check lanes. These measures were implemented on or ahead of schedule.

We are also focused on airport security. In April of last year TSA issued guidelines to domestic airports to reduce access to secure areas, to require that all airport and airline personnel pass through TSA screening if they intend to board a flight, to conduct more frequent physical screening of airport and airline personnel, and to conduct more frequent criminal background checks of airport and airline personnel. Since then employee access points have been reduced, and random screening of personnel within secure areas has increased four-fold. We are continuing these efforts in 2016. In February, TSA issued guidelines to further enhance the screening of aviation workers in the secure area of airports, and in May, TSA and airport operators completed detailed vulnerability assessments and mitigation plans for nearly 300 federalized airports.

We will continue to take appropriate precautionary measures, both seen and unseen, to respond to evolving aviation security threats and protect the traveling public.

Without short-cutting aviation security, we are also working aggressively to improve efficiency and minimize wait times at airport security check points in the face of increased air travel volumes. I thank Congress for approving our two reprogramming requests that have enabled us to expedite the hiring of over 1,300 new TSOs, pay additional overtime to the existing TSO workforce, and convert over 2,700 TSOs from part-time to full-time.

We have also brought on and moved canine teams to assist in the screening of passengers at checkpoints, solicited over 150 volunteers from among the TSO workforce to accept temporary reassignment from less busy to busier airports, deployed optimization teams to the Nation’s 20 busiest airports to improve operations, and stood up an Incident Command Center at TSA headquarters to monitor checkpoint trends in real time.

We continue to encourage the public to join TSA Pre✓®. The public is responding. While enrollments a year ago were at about 3,500 daily, now enrollments are exceeding 15,000 a day. For 90% of those who are enrolled and utilize TSA Pre✓®, wait times at TSA checkpoints are five minutes or less.

Airlines and airports are also assisting to address wait times. We appreciate that major airlines and airport operators have assigned personnel to certain non-security duties at TSA checkpoints, and are providing support in a number of other ways. Longer term, we are working with airlines and airports to invest in “Innovation lanes” and other technology to transform the screening of carry-on luggage and personal items.

Our efforts are showing results. Nationwide, the wait time for more than 99% of the traveling public is 30 minutes or less, and more than 90% of the traveling public is waiting 15 minutes or less. But we are not taking a victory lap. Over the Fourth of July holiday weekend, TSA screened 10.7 million travelers. June 30 and July 1 were the highest-volume travel days we have seen since 2007. During this period, however, the average wait time nationwide in standard security lines was less than ten minutes, while those in TSA Pre-check lines waited an average of less than five minutes.

We plan to do more. The summer travel season continues, followed by holiday travel in the fall and winter. We are accelerating the hiring of an additional 600 TSOs before the end of the fiscal year. And we will continue to work with Congress to ensure TSA has the resources it needs in the coming fiscal years.

As I have said many times, we will keep passengers moving, but we will also keep them safe.

Cybersecurity

Along with counterterrorism, cybersecurity remains a cornerstone of our Department’s mission. Making tangible improvements to our Nation’s cybersecurity is a top priority for President Obama and for me to accomplish before the end of the Administration.

On February 9th, the President announced his “Cybersecurity National Action Plan,” which is the culmination of seven years of effort by the Administration. The Plan includes a call for the creation of a Commission on Enhancing National Cybersecurity, additional investments in technology, federal cybersecurity, cyber education, new cyber talent in the federal workforce, and improved cyber incident response.

DHS has a role in almost every aspect of the President’s plan.

As reflected in the President’s 2017 budget request, we want to expand our cyber response teams from 10 to 48.

We are doubling the number of cybersecurity advisors to in effect make “house calls,” to assist private sector organizations with in-person, customized cybersecurity assessments and best practices.

Building on DHS’s “Stop. Think. Connect” campaign, we will help promote public awareness on multi-factor authentication.

We will collaborate with Underwriters Laboratory and others to develop a Cybersecurity Assurance Program to test and certify networked devices within the “Internet of Things” — such as your home alarm system, your refrigerator, or even your pacemaker.

I have also directed my team to focus urgently on improving our abilities to protect the Federal Government and private sector. Over the past year, the National Cybersecurity Communications Integration Center, or “NCCIC,” increased its distribution of information, the number of vulnerability assessments conducted, and the number of incident responses.

I have issued an aggressive timetable for improving federal civilian cybersecurity, principally through two DHS programs:

The first is called EINSTEIN. EINSTEIN 1 and 2 have the ability to detect and monitor cybersecurity threats attempting to access our federal systems, and these protections are now in place across nearly all federal civilian departments and agencies.

EINSTEIN 3A is the newest iteration of the system, and has the ability to automatically block potential cyber intrusions on our federal systems. Thus far E3A has actually blocked over a million potential cyber threats, and we are rapidly expanding this capability. About a year ago, E3A covered only about 20% of our federal civilian networks. In the wake of the malicious cyber intrusion at the Office of Personnel Management, in May of last year I directed our cybersecurity team to make at least some aspects of E3A available to all federal departments and agencies by the end of last year. They met that deadline. Now that the system is available to all civilian agencies, 50% of federal personnel are actually protected, including the Office of Personnel Management, and we are working to get all federal departments and agencies on board by the end of this year.

The second program, called Continuous Diagnostics and Mitigation, or CDM, helps agencies detect and prioritize vulnerabilities inside their networks. In 2015, we provided CDM sensors to 97% of the federal civilian government. Next year, DHS will provide the second phase of CDM to 100% of the federal civilian government.

I have also used my authorities granted by Congress to issue Binding Operational Directives and further drive improved cybersecurity across the federal government. In May 2015, I directed civilian agencies to promptly patch vulnerabilities on their Internet-facing devices. These vulnerabilities are accessible from the Internet, and thus present a significant risk if not quickly addressed. Agencies responded quickly and mitigated all of the vulnerabilities that existed when the directive was issued. Although new vulnerabilities are identified every day, agencies continue to fix these issues with greater urgency then before the directive.

Last month, I issued a second binding operational directive. This directive mandated that agencies participate in DHS-led assessments of their high value assets and implement specific recommendations to secure these important systems from our adversaries. We are working aggressively with the owners of those systems to increase their security.

In September 2015, DHS awarded a grant to the University of Texas at San Antonio to work with industry to identify a common set of best practices for the development of Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations, or “ISAOs.” The University of Texas at San Antonio recently released the first draft of these best practices. They will be released in final form later this year after public comment.

Finally, I thank Congress for passing the Cybersecurity Act of 2015. This new law is a huge assist to DHS and our cybersecurity mission. We are in the process of implementing that law now. As required by the law, our NCCIC has built a system to automate the receipt and distribution of cyber threat indicators at real-time speed. We built this in a way that also includes privacy protections.

In March, I announced that this system was operational. At the same time, we issued interim guidelines and procedures, required by this law, providing federal agencies and the private sector with a clear understanding of how to share cyber threat indicators with the NCCIC, and how the NCCIC will share and use that information. We have now issued the final guidelines and procedures consistent with the deadline set by the law.

I appreciate the additional authorities granted to us by Congress to carry out our mission. Today, we face increasing threats from cyber-attacks against infrastructure and I strongly believe that we need an agency focused on cyber security and infrastructure protection.

I have asked Congress to authorize the establishment of a new operational Component within DHS, the Cyber and Infrastructure Protection agency. We have submitted a plan which will streamline and strengthen existing functions within the Department to ensure we are prepared for the growing cyber threat and the potential for large scale or catastrophic physical consequences as a result of an attack. I urge Congress to take action so we are able to ensure DHS is best positioned to execute this vital mission.

Conclusion

I am pleased to provide the Committee with this overview of the progress we are making at DHS on countering threats. You have my commitment to work with each member of this Committee to build on our efforts to protect the American people.

I look forward to your questions.

Syndicated from the Department of Homeland Security

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DHS Awards Initial Funding

Release Date: 
July 13, 2016

WASHINGTON—The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has awarded the initial funding of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s (DNDO) Securing the Cities program to Chicago, further building upon the Department’s ongoing efforts to increase the Nation’s capabilities to detect and protect against radiological and nuclear threats.

“The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s mission is to protect the Nation against the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive materials,” said DNDO’s Acting Director Dr. Wayne Brasure. “Expanding the Securing the Cities program to Chicago will bring important capabilities to one more of our country’s largest metropolitan areas.”

The Securing the Cities program seeks to reduce the risk of a successful deployment of a radiological or nuclear weapon against major metropolitan areas in the United States. The program assists state and local partner agencies as they build regional capabilities to detect, analyze, and report nuclear and other radioactive materials.

As part of the Securing the Cities program, the Chicago region will receive up to $30 million over five years. The initial funding to Chicago provides $3.5 million to begin the region’s planning and analysis.  Future funding will allow DNDO to work with partners in the Chicago area to build a robust, regional nuclear detection capability for law enforcement and first responders. DNDO will also provide equipment and assist regional partners in conducting training and exercises to further their nuclear detection capabilities and coordinate with federal operations. Once funding concludes, DNDO will continue to provide subject matter expertise in the areas of training, exercises, and technical support to ensure the region maintains detection capability.

Initial work in Chicago will begin before the conclusion of the current fiscal year.  The program began in 2006 as a pilot project for the New York City/Jersey City/Newark region and expanded to the Los Angeles/Long Beach region in 2012, the National Capital Region in 2014, and the Houston region in 2015. The Department intends to expand the program to additional major metropolitan areas in the coming years.

Once fully implemented, the program’s capabilities will extend to protect nearly 100 million people in the country.

 

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DHS Awards Initial Funding of the Chicago Implementation of the Securing the Cities Program

Release Date: 
July 13, 2016

WASHINGTON—The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has awarded the initial funding of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s (DNDO) Securing the Cities program to Chicago, further building upon the Department’s ongoing efforts to increase the Nation’s capabilities to detect and protect against radiological and nuclear threats.

“The Domestic Nuclear Detection Office’s mission is to protect the Nation against the malicious use of nuclear and other radioactive materials,” said DNDO’s Acting Director Dr. Wayne Brasure. “Expanding the Securing the Cities program to Chicago will bring important capabilities to one more of our country’s largest metropolitan areas.”

The Securing the Cities program seeks to reduce the risk of a successful deployment of a radiological or nuclear weapon against major metropolitan areas in the United States. The program assists state and local partner agencies as they build regional capabilities to detect, analyze, and report nuclear and other radioactive materials.

As part of the Securing the Cities program, the Chicago region will receive up to $30 million over five years. The initial funding to Chicago provides $3.5 million to begin the region’s planning and analysis.  Future funding will allow DNDO to work with partners in the Chicago area to build a robust, regional nuclear detection capability for law enforcement and first responders. DNDO will also provide equipment and assist regional partners in conducting training and exercises to further their nuclear detection capabilities and coordinate with federal operations. Once funding concludes, DNDO will continue to provide subject matter expertise in the areas of training, exercises, and technical support to ensure the region maintains detection capability.

Initial work in Chicago will begin before the conclusion of the current fiscal year.  The program began in 2006 as a pilot project for the New York City/Jersey City/Newark region and expanded to the Los Angeles/Long Beach region in 2012, the National Capital Region in 2014, and the Houston region in 2015. The Department intends to expand the program to additional major metropolitan areas in the coming years.

Once fully implemented, the program’s capabilities will extend to protect nearly 100 million people in the country.

 

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Written testimony of I&A, USCG, and MGMT for a House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence hearing titled “Counterintelligence and Insider Threats: How Prepared is the Department of Homeland Security?”

Release Date: 
July 13, 2016

311 Cannon House Office Building

Chairman King, Ranking Member Higgins, and distinguished Members of the Committee, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) efforts to address Counterintelligence and Insider Threat. We look forward to providing our joint perspective on the full range of counterintelligence and insider threats we face as a Department.

Counterintelligence Threat

DHS continues to face a complex foreign intelligence threat environment. In recent decades, the U.S. Government has made extraordinary strides in adapting to the changing fiscal, technological, and threat environment. However, the challenges of keeping up with the threat have provided opportunities for foreign intelligence entities to expand their scope of collection and operations against the U.S. Government, including at DHS. There also continues to be significant damage done by insiders who engage in unauthorized disclosures.

In the 2016 National Counterintelligence Strategy, President Obama characterized the counterintelligence threat as “daunting” and one that “seeks to undermine our economic strength, steal our most sensitive information, and weaken our defenses.” On a daily basis, foreign intelligence entities, including non-traditional actors such as terrorist groups and transnational criminal organizations, use human and technical means, both openly and clandestinely, to steal U.S. national security information that is of vital importance to our security. The interconnectedness of systems and emerging technologies provide our adversaries with novel ways to steal valuable information from the U.S. Government, academic institutions, and businesses – oftentimes from the safety of a computer thousands of miles away. As the cyber-intrusions against the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) illustrated to millions of government employees, federal agencies continue to remain at significant risk of being targeted by foreign adversaries.

Director of National Intelligence (DNI) James Clapper assessed1 that the leading threat of intelligence collection on U.S. interests is and will continue to be Russia and China, based on their overt intent, capabilities, and broad operational scope. Other state actors in Asia and Latin America pose local and regional counterintelligence threats to U.S. interests. In addition, Iranian and Cuban intelligence and security services continue to view the United States as their top priority for intelligence collection. The DNI further assessed that penetrating and influencing the U.S. national decision-making apparatus and the Intelligence Community (IC) will remain primary objectives for foreign intelligence entities.

International terrorist groups and transnational organized crime organizations continue to operate and strengthen their intelligence capabilities utilizing human, technical, and cyber means. Similar to state actors, these non-state entities successfully recruit human sources and conduct physical and technical surveillance of their targets, with increasing sophistication, in order to evade detection and capture.

Finally, we continue to believe that unauthorized disclosures of sensitive U.S. Government information are and will remain a threat for the foreseeable future. The interconnectedness of information technology systems exacerbates this threat.


1 James Clapper, Statement for the Record, “Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community,” February 9, 2016, http://www.intelligence.senate.gov/sites/default/files/wwt2016.pdf

 

Counterintelligence Strategy and Implementation

DHS is implementing the National Counterintelligence Strategy of the United States of America 2016. As a result of the broader intelligence transformation that the Office of Intelligence and Analysis has undertaken in the last year, I have made integrating counterintelligence into the broader DHS mission and our Components’ worldwide operations one of my top priorities. To emphasize the growing importance of counterintelligence activities, we realigned I&A Counterintelligence Division to directly report to the I&A front office to reflect its Department-wide responsibilities.

We continue to develop a holistic Counterintelligence Program across the Department, leveraging the Homeland Security Intelligence Council to drive integration of counterintelligence activities across the DHS Intelligence Enterprise. Our objectives are to:

  • Deepen our understanding of the threats posed by foreign intelligence entities and insider threats to DHS;
  • Detect, deter and disrupt these threats through proactive training and awareness campaigns and effective investigative efforts;
  • Safeguard sensitive information from exploitation by identifying the department’s most critical assets and implementing enhanced protective measures; and
  • Support Departmental efforts to protect our Nation’s networks from foreign intelligence efforts to disrupt, exploit, or steal sensitive information, including personally identifiable information.

To help coordinate this effort, we created a Counterintelligence and Security Board, co-chaired by the DHS Counterintelligence Director and the DHS Chief Security Officer to better integrate and align Component Counterintelligence and security programs. This Board helps synchronize the Department’s counterintelligence efforts, insider threat programs, foreign access and visitor management, and related counterintelligence and security activities.

As part of the effort to integrate counterintelligence into Component missions and operations, I&A Counterintelligence Division is embedding experienced Counterintelligence Officers in each of the Operational Components and highest risk headquarters offices. These Counterintelligence Officers perform myriad functions, including:

  • Assisting DHS Component Leadership with their efforts to protect DHS personnel, programs, and information from external and internal threats;
  • Conducting comprehensive foreign intelligence threat and awareness briefings, including foreign travel briefings and debriefings for DHS personnel traveling to high threat countries;
  • Assisting with periodic Counterintelligence Program Compliance Reviews; and
  • Creating a culture of CI awareness through training.

I&A’s Counterintelligence Division recently began Departmental counterintelligence capability assessments and program reviews to identify gaps requiring additional resources and prioritize existing resources. The assessments and reviews examine which DHS operations are most vulnerable to foreign intelligence entities, and provide the information necessary to make decisions on defensive counterintelligence operations to counter the foreign intelligence entity threat.

The Counterintelligence Division also produces all-source intelligence analysis of foreign intelligence threats to DHS personnel, operations, technology, and the broader Homeland Security Enterprise, including our State, Local, Tribal, Territorial, and Private Sector partners. I&A recently completed a classified counterintelligence threat assessment covering the last three years. This assessment, which serves as our baseline, will be updated annually to track trends and significant changes in the counterintelligence threat environment.

As a member of the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS), DHS conducts analysis to support the ODNI-led National Security Threat Assessments. If a National Security Agreement or other risk mitigation agreement is put in place, DHS counterintelligence analysts assess the threat to support DHS CFIUS Compliance Monitoring—the process through which the U.S. Government continuously tracks, evaluates, and enforces CFIUS mitigation measures.

DHS counterintelligence also supports Team Telecom, comprised of the DHS, Department of Justice (DOJ), and Department of Defense (DoD). Team Telecom reviews applications to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) when there is disclosable foreign ownership and the potential national security, law enforcement, and public interest concerns. Our threat assessment informs Team Telecom’s recommendations to the FCC.

We also recognize that much of the DHS workforce and the broader Homeland Security Enterprise does not handle classified information and is not always aware of foreign intelligence entity threats or the relevance of counterintelligence to their work. We work to educate the workforce on their counterintelligence responsibilities.

  • In July 2013, I&A’s Counterintelligence Division published an unclassified finished intelligence product for our federal, state, and local partners who host foreign delegations and tours on potential indicators of foreign collection techniques. The product highlighted “Topics of Concern” and “Behaviors of Concern” personnel should be aware of that might raise a red flag and encouraged them to report suspicious activity.
  • We have also conducted significant outreach following the breach of personnel information from the compromise of OPM databases and the potential threats stemming from that incident to educate the workforce and our stakeholders on how they might be targeted, and encouraged them to report suspicious activity.

To enhance and our counterintelligence program, we are forging strong partnerships within DHS and are partnering with counterintelligence elements across the U.S. Government.

U.S. Coast Guard Counterintelligence Service

The U.S. Coast Guard’s (USCG) Counterintelligence Service serves as a model for our Components. Established in 2004, the USCG Counterintelligence Service provides defensive counterintelligence support to USCG personnel and units hosting foreign visitors or traveling overseas. Given the USCG’s unique maritime mission and frequent international engagements, establishing this capability has proven crucial to protecting USCG personnel from foreign intelligence entity collection attempts and serves as the cornerstone for further development of the Counterintelligence Service’s capabilities.

The USCG Counterintelligence Service engages in counterintelligence operations and investigations with partner agencies, and provides its personnel with both online and in-person threat awareness training. The USCG also maintains an internal website that hosts insider threat reference material, as well as a portal employees can use to report insider threat concerns.

The USCG Counterintelligence Service has increased analytic production tailored to the current threat environment, specifically with products related to countering foreign intelligence entities and transnational organized crime collection efforts targeting the USCG.

Most recently, in support of the USCG’s Western Hemisphere Strategy and the DHS Southern Borders and Approaches Campaign, the USCG Counterintelligence Service initiated a pilot program to integrate Counterintelligence Service Agents with DoD Force Protection Detachments, supporting the increased USCG presence in foreign countries.

Insider Threat Program

With more than 115,000 federal employees who have access to classified national security information, implementing Executive Order (EO) 135872 and the President’s National Policy and Minimum Standards for Executive Branch Insider Threat Programs is the Department’s top information safeguarding priority. Established pursuant to EO 13587, the DHS Insider Threat Program is a department-wide effort to protect classified national security information from unauthorized disclosure. The purpose of the program is to identify, detect, deter, and mitigate the unauthorized disclosure of classified information. The DHS Chief Security Officer serves as the department’s Senior Official responsible for the day-to-day management and oversight of the Insider Threat Program.

We have made tremendous strides maturing our program to address insider threats to classified information and we expect to meet the Administration’s mandate to make our insider threat program fully operational by the end of the calendar year, including the deployment of monitoring technology on all of our classified computer networks. This includes the Secret-level Homeland Secure Data Network, which provides classified connectivity to our 23 federal agency subscribers and nearly all State and Local Fusion Centers.

Significantly, the USCG became the first Insider Threat Program in the Executive Branch to achieve “Full Operating Capability” status as assessed by the National Insider Threat Task Force. USCG has been addressing insider threats since 2008, and, in 2012, installed technologies designed to assist in addressing insider threats on classified computer systems. USCG’s technical detection capability – staffed by engineers and analysts – spans all classified USCG computers, fuses information from other organizations, and has constant oversight.

In addition to the deployment of monitoring technology to all of our classified networks, we have implemented the capability to collect, fuse, correlate, and analyze information from various data sources in order to identify suspected insider threats. This capability has constant oversight by our General Counsel, Privacy Officer, and Officer for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties in order to ensure the protection of privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties of all of our personnel.

We strongly believe that in order to prevent insider threats from materializing through early intervention, we must educate and train our workforce to “See Something, Say Something.” We are in the process of providing our workforce with comprehensive awareness training to better sensitize our workforce to identify and report anomalous behavior indicative of an insider threat. This training, which will serve as a force multiplier for our program, enables the detection of potential threats that cannot be discovered through any technological solution available today. Earlier detection will allow for earlier mitigation of potential threats and we believe this is a key component of our program.

The Insider Threat Program complements the Department’s counterintelligence and security missions. In recognition of this, the Department is currently considering expanding the scope of our program to include preventing, deterring, detecting, and mitigating other threats posed by insiders such as workplace violence, criminal activity, and misconduct.


2 EO 13587 “Structural Reforms to Improve the Security of Classified Networks and the Responsible Sharing and Safeguarding of Classified Information”

 

Conclusion

Chairman King, Ranking Member Higgins, and Members of the Committee, we thank you again for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss these important matters. We look forward to answering your questions.

Syndicated from the Department of Homeland Security

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